This scenario is covered by rule R2-e, which states the following:
If a Robot has passed inspection, but is later found to be in violation of a Robot rule during a Match, then they will be Disqualified from that Match and <R2d> will apply until the violation is remedied and the Team is re-inspected.
R2-e is primarily intended for a scenario where a Robot has been modified since inspection. However, it is also intended as a "catch" for a scenario where a Head Referee identifies a violation that an inspector may have missed.
Most Robot rules can be considered as "inspection rules", in the context that there may not be a Head Referee present during inspection. So, statements such as "inspectors have the final say" imply that this is being questioned during inspection. Once a Robot passes inspection, R2-e and T1 come into effect for the duration of the Tournament.